Genealogy, Immigration

Maria Rangel Juarez Partida

Maria Rangel, my father’s maternal grandmother, was born in Texas in 1924.  At some point, she married and had a family with Benito Juarez, then moved to Arizona between 1954-1956.  Maria Rangel divorced Benito Juarez in 1964 and married Federico Partida.  She died in Phoenix in 1982 but was living in Coolidge, Arizona at the time.

Maria Rangel divorces Benito Juarez in October 1964, Pinal County, Arizona.

I was able to order her death certificate and am so glad I did because ith showed her parents were Hipolito Rangel and Estefana de la Cruz.  I was also able to find a record of their entry into the United States in 1910.  The manifest lists just about all of the people entering as living in Monterrey, but (#20) Hipolito and (#21) Estefana listed their closest relative as being Hipolito’s sister Santos Rangel as living in Matehuala, San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

Maria Rangel’s death certificate showing her parents, Hipolito Rangel and Estefana de la Cruz, 1982.
Maria Rangel’s parents, Hipolito Rangel (#20) and Estefana de la Cruz (#21) entering Hildalgo, Texas from Mexico in 1910. Santos Rangel is listed as Hipolito’s sister living in Matehuala, San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

Who was Federico Partida? Another Marriage Mystery, San Benito, Texas

Ancestry now has a record of my paternal grandparents’ marriage in Yuma, Pinal County, 1958.  I was surprised by this because I always assumed they met and married in Texas and because my grandmother was 16 years old (!) when she married my mysterious grandfather.  Remember, he shed his name when he came to the United States and Amelia lent him a name from her family tree.  I wonder why they went all the way to Yuma to get married?  They lived in Mesa at the time.

My paternal grandparents’ marriage certificate from 1958, Yuma, Pinal County, Arizona. Amelia Juarez Rangel was born in San Benito, Cameron County, Texas in 1941 to Maria Teresa Rangel and Benito Juarez.

One of the witnesses was Maria Rangel, I think that was her mother who appears on the 1940 census in Cameron County, Texas, right outside of San Benito.  The other witness was someone named Federico Partida who I was able to find on the same 1940 census of Cameron County, Texas, right outside of San Benito.  Interesting.

Miguel Juarez with wife Juana Conde and children Gertrudes, Luz, Benito, Maria (Rangel, daughter in law), Anna, Chavo Rozendez (son in law), grandsons Eduardo and Narcisso, Juan Conde (nephew) and Irma Conde (niece). 1940 Census of Cameron County, Texas right outside of San Benito.
Federico Partida in the household of Mauricia Partida with Nasario, Pablo, and Tomas Partida. 1940 Census of Cameron County, Texas, right outside of San Benito.

Our DNA Match to the Anzick Baby

Source: Montana Office of Public Instruction
Source: Montana Office of Public Instruction

Last Tuesday I received an interesting email from Felix Chandrakumar:

This is regarding your DNA having a genetic match with an ancient Amerindian DNA …

I had emailed the authors of the scientific paper regarding an ancient DNA matching living people. I had also included the top 100 emails in the list in bcc who have significant DNA matching the ancient DNA, in hope of getting some help/answers in solving this interesting mystery.
Is there anyone receiving this email have their kit phased? If so, please let me know. This greatly helps to confirm IBD segments in the matches. If you are not sure about phasing, please let me know if there are any kits with (any parent) and child  tested for DNA and I can guide you how to do phasing in GEDMatch. Phasing helps to decide which segment comes from which parents and provides the ability to confirm the segment matches with the ancient DNA. You can know more about phasing from ISOGG wiki.”
So I sent him my phased file (with my dad) and his results are posted here: .
He has since replaced the Anzick-1 kit, now F999913, at GEDMatch that has more SNPs so I reran my phased kit and the results were consistent with Felix’s.
PhasedAnzickMatchWhat does this all mean?  I don’t know.  I was curious what would happen if I ran my dad’s kit alone compared to Anzick-1 and this is what I saw.
DADandAnzick  He has matching segments at chromosomes 1,4,6, and 8 which is awesome but then where did our phased matches on chromosomes 3 and 20 come from?  Does it discount the validity of our matches?  (Oh my goodness, haha duh! I just remembered to get a match with my phased kit I had to drop the threshold to 500/5 so that’s how chromosomes 3 and 20 come up. My dad’s kit matches with the standard 700/7 threshold. I re-ran his data again with 500/5 and sure enough there are chromosomes 3 & 20). I am far from an expert, but the comparison of our matches raise some red flags for me.  Also note the time to MRCA, 4.4 generations?  That’s crazy.
I very much want to believe we have shared ancestry and in a way I do, but I’m not sure what to make of the data.
Thanks to Armando for chatting with me about this subject.
Drama, Genealogy, Immigration, Rant

My life was a lie.

Just kidding, it wasn’t that dramatic.  My dad’s parents are Joe Conde and Amelia Juarez Rangel, although I didn’t really think about that until recently.  I wasn’t very close to these grandparents because, when I was born to teenage parents who did the best they could (a damn good job if you ask me), these grandparents didn’t feel old enough to be grandma and grandpa.  Amelia also tried to convince my dad I wasn’t his daughter.  I thought of her when my dad’s DNA results came in and did a little jig, even though we never doubted I am my father’s daughter.

My last name was Rangel, as was my dad’s, so I always assumed that was my grandfather’s last name.  Later I noticed some of my aunts and uncles were Conde.  As I got into genealogy I neglected my dad’s side because I feel very distant from them.  As time went on, I questioned my dad’s (and his dad’s) last name.  First off, it’s weird that my father has his mom’s maiden name but I had him join the Rangel Project at Family Tree DNA just in case.  I couldn’t find a Conde project.  In any case my father’s Y-DNA at 12 markers has no matches.  None!

My dad asked an older brother about all of this, and my uncle admitted to having asked my grandfather because he also had his suspicions.  My uncle said that my grandfather admitted his last name was false and told him his real last name which my uncle did not remember although he said “it sounded very indigenous.”

My paternal grandparents, Joe Conde and Amelia Juarez Rangel.  Some of their children were named Rangel, like my dad, and others Conde.
My paternal grandparents, Joe Conde and Amelia Juarez Rangel. Some of their children were named Rangel, like my dad, and others Conde.
Dad's mom, 5th down. Here is a record of Amelia Juarez Rangel's birth on October 17, 1941 to Maria Rangel and Benito Juarez.
Dad’s mom, 5th down. Here is a record of Amelia Juarez Rangel’s birth on October 17, 1941 to Maria Rangel and Benito Juarez.
1940 census
In 1940 we see Amelia Juarez Rangel’s parents, Maria Rangel and Benito Juarez living with Benito’s family. Benito’s father Miguel is the farmer and his sons are farm laborers, suggesting that Miguel Juarez owned the land. Interestingly, living with them are some Conde relatives. I think this is how my grandfather Joe Conde took his last name.
1930 census
In 1930 we see a very young Maria Rangel living with her family. This seeks to explain the different last names used by my father’s family: Conde, Juarez, and Rangel

AJR tombstone


Dr. McDonald Analyzes Dad’s Data



Most likely fit is 73.3% (+- 0.4%) America (all Native (Central) American)

and 5.9% (+- 0.9%) Africa (various subcontinents)

and 17.4% (+- 0.7%) Europe (various subcontinents)

and 3.3% (+- 0.3%) E. Asia (various subcontinents)

The following are possible population sets and their fractions, most likely at the top

Maya= 0.728 Maasai= 0.058 French= 0.180 Chukchi= 0.035 or

Maya= 0.736 Maasai= 0.056 French= 0.177 Yakut= 0.031 or

Maya= 0.728 O-Ethiop= 0.070 French= 0.167 Chukchi= 0.035 or

Maya= 0.737 O-Ethiop= 0.068 French= 0.165 Yakut= 0.030 or

Maya= 0.735 Maasai= 0.057 French= 0.170 Altai= 0.039 or

Maya= 0.736 Maasai= 0.057 French= 0.176 Buryat= 0.032 or

Maya= 0.736 Maasai= 0.056 Romania= 0.182 Yakut= 0.027 or

Maya= 0.738 Mandenka= 0.042 Spain= 0.188 Yakut= 0.033 or

Maya= 0.736 Maasai= 0.057 French= 0.173 MongolaC= 0.035 or

Maya= 0.727 O-Ethiop= 0.074 English= 0.164 Chukchi= 0.036

or, better, a custom fit as

English 0.1492 Moroccan 0.0985 Columbian 0.0456 Maya 0.5841 Pima 0.1226 or

French 0.1490 Moroccan 0.0978 Columbian 0.0482 Maya 0.5822 Pima 0.1228 or

Spain 0.1506 Moroccan 0.0942 Columbian 0.0475 Maya 0.5849 Pima 0.1227

The Native American in this is generic Central-North American/Caribbean, clearly not

the more common (in people I see) plain Mayan from Guatemala/Mexico. Also,

Spain really is a third choice to more northerly Western European.

Genealogy, Immigration

Dad’s Autosomal Results

Dad's Ancestry Composition by 23andMe
Dad’s Ancestry Composition by 23andMe
His admixture proportions using HarappaWorld at
His admixture proportions using HarappaWorld at

I used Oracle-4  to get his top populations (option 1 and 2 gave me the same results):

Admixture Proportions (with link to Oracle)

Oracle-4 Using 4 populations approximation:
1 maya + pima + pima + puerto-rican @ 3.144
2 pima + pima + pima + puerto-rican @ 3.245
3 pima + pima + pima + puerto-rican @ 3.298
4 bolivian + pima + pima + puerto-rican @ 3.317
5 pima + pima + puerto-rican + totonac @ 3.340
6 maya + pima + puerto-rican + totonac @ 3.377
7 pima + pima + puerto-rican + totonac @ 3.468
8 pima + puerto-rican + totonac + totonac @ 3.490
9 mexican + peruvian + pima + pima @ 3.503
10 maya + maya + maya + mexican @ 3.544
11 maya + pima + pima + puerto-rican @ 3.567
12 bolivian + pima + puerto-rican + totonac @ 3.573
13 maya + maya + mexican + pima @ 3.635
14 maya + puerto-rican + totonac + totonac @ 3.651
15 pima + puerto-rican + totonac + totonac @ 3.685
16 puerto-rican + totonac + totonac + totonac @ 3.690
17 mexican + peruvian + pima + totonac @ 3.709
18 maya + maya + mexican + totonac @ 3.783
19 maya + pima + puerto-rican + totonac @ 3.842
20 ecuadorian + ecuadorian + pima + pima @ 3.851

Genealogy, Immigration

Dad’s Deep Ancestry Results

I had dad tested with 23andMe because of their new pricing which I think is a pretty good deal for autosomal.  His ancestry composition results aren’t in yet, but his maternal (mitochondrial) and paternal (Y-DNA) haplogoup information is.  They don’t test for these  haplogroups in quite the same way Family Tree DNA does.

Dad's mitochondrial haplogroup A2d1a
Dad’s mitochondrial haplogroup A2d1a
Dad's Y-DNA haplogroup Q1a3a*
Dad’s Y-DNA haplogroup Q1a3a*

This is part of what 23andMe had to say about mitochondrial haplogroup A2d1a:

“Haplogroup A was widespread in Siberia as recently as 7,000 years ago. One study of skeletal remains discovered near Siberia’s Lake Baikal estimated the haplogroup was present in 13-26% of the region’s population at the time. But the haplogroup is rare in the region today; it is found almost exclusively among the Chukchi and the Yupik, two small indigenous groups from northeastern Siberia.

A in the Americas

At the peak of the Ice Age, between about 20,000 and 15,000 years ago, massive glaciers covered much of North America and Eurasia. So much water was locked up in the ice sheets that global sea level dropped 300 feet, creating connections between land masses that are isolated by wide straits or passages today. One of those connections was the Bering land bridge, an ice-free but frigid corridor hundreds of miles wide that linked Siberia and Alaska. Mammoths, bison, caribou and other Ice Age mammals roamed back and forth between Siberia and Alaska during this period, as did a few hardy hunter-gatherers who could cope with the region’s extreme climate.

As the Ice Age ended, people began moving south from the Arctic into the heart of North America. Within a few thousand years, possibly even faster, the new arrivals had populated the Western Hemisphere down to the tip of South America.

Coastal Connection

Haplogroup A is especially common among members of the Haida, Nuu-Chah-Nulth, Nuxálk (Bella Coola) and Chumash tribes of the Pacific coast. Humans had certainly reached what is now California by 10,000 years ago, as evidenced by the discovery of skeletal remains on islands off the state’s coast that have been radiocarbon dated to that age. Other skeletal remains from near present-day Monterey, California have yielded ancient DNA tracing to the A haplogroup.

Haplogroup A is found in Central America and northern South America, but not farther south. That suggests that however people carrying the haplogroup moved into the Americas, their advance was ultimately impeded by earlier arrivals to the southern continent.

Haplogroup A certainly would have been found among the subjects of the Inca empire, which ruled the northern Andes until the arrival of Spanish conquistadors in 1526. Mitochondrial DNA belonging to the haplogroup was extracted from the “Ice Maiden,” the mummified remains of a teenage Inca girl who died in a ritual sacrifice about 500 years ago.

Interior of North America

While the distribution of A is patchier in the interior of North America, it does appear at high frequencies in many populations, particularly in the American Southwest, northern plains, and the southeastern United States.

About 50-60% of individuals from the Navajo and Apache carry haplogroup A, while their neighbors rarely carry this haplogroup. Interestingly, the Navajo and Apache are both southern Athapaskan speakers that appear to have migrated from a homeland further north to the American Southwest only about 500 years ago. Athapaskan-speakers still reside in Alaska and Canada. Although they have adapted to the desert climate and the Pueblo lifestyle (at least the Navajo), their mitochondrial diversity still records their northern heritage.

Haplogroup A is also common in Algonquian-speaking populations from the Plains region of the United States and Canada, ranging from 30%-60%. Ojibwa/Chippewa, Cheyenne and Arapaho were all historically Algonquian-speaking populations from the Plains region and Great Lakes of United States and Canada.

Iroquioan-speaking groups such as the Mohawk also carry haplogroup group A at high frequencies (60%). It is not clear if this indicates that the Mohawk historically married women from other northern tribes or if the high frequency of A represents a recent bottleneck in the population. Iroquois from further south (e.g. Cherokee) have much lower frequencies of haplogroup A.

Haplogroup A is also quite common in Muskogean-speaking populations from the southeastern United States, reaching almost 75% in the Choctaw historically from Mississippi and 60% in the Seminoles of Florida. Genetic types in these southeastern populations are different from other haplogroup A individuals throughout North America. This indicates that haplogroup A in the southeastern populations is the result of ancient common ancestry with the other Native Americans, rather than recent gene flow. Southeastern populations also display relatively low genetic diversity, indicative that the population size may have crashed after contact with European explorers.

The Polar Route

A second migration of haplogroup A members into North America appears to have occurred more recently, as Eskimo-Aleut populations moved eastward from Siberia into Arctic Canada and Greenland about 5,000 to 6,500 years ago. That migration is marked by the wide distribution of A2 from the Haida on the Pacific coast of Canada to the Inuit in Greenland, where the subgroup accounts for 100% of the population.”

And about Q1a3a* :


Haplogroup Q arose about 18,000 years ago in north-central Asia, at the peak of the Ice Age. The first men who carried it pursued mammoths and other gigantic game over frigid steppe and tundra in climate conditions that are found today only in the far polar latitudes.

Today haplogroup Q remains relatively common in Siberia and north-central Asia. It is most common in the Kets and Selkups of Northeast Siberia, where it reaches levels of 93% and 66%, respectively.

Oddly, a few concentrations of Q can also be found in southwestern Asia, far from the haplogroup’s homeland. About 2% of men from India bear haplogroup Q, and the haplogroup has also been found occasionally in the Arabian Peninsula.

Coming to America

Yet haplogroup Q is most abundant on the other side of the world, in the Americas. About 15,000 years ago a relatively small number of men bearing the Q1a3a branch of the haplogroup crossed from Asia to North America via the Bering land bridge, a strip of land that connected Siberia and Alaska. The land bridge was a result of lower sea level caused by the increased amount of water that was frozen in the polar ice caps at the time.

The first Americans spread rapidly in the uninhabited continent. Some pursued migrating herds of mammoth, bison and other prey over the North American grasslands. Others made their way southward along the Pacific coast, likely traveling in small boats. Archaeological evidence suggests they reached the tip of South America by 13,000 years ago.

Men bearing haplogroup Q1a3a were almost certainly among those earliest South Americans. It is the only haplogroup present among South American Indians today.

The Y chromosomes of North American Indian men are far less uniform. Yet even here Q1a3a still dominates, reaching up to 40% in tribes like the Cherokee.”

Dad's mom, Amelia Juarez Rangel (A2d1a).
Dad’s mom, Amelia Juarez Rangel (A2d1a).
Dad's dad (Q1a3a*)
Dad’s dad (Q1a3a*)
Dad! With mom, sitting next to his brother in the upper left picture, and his sister (and my mom) in the lower picture.
Dad! With mom, sitting next to his brother in the upper left picture, and his sister (and my mom) in the lower picture.