Genealogy, Immigration

Benito Juarez

Benito Juarez was my paternal grandmother Amelia Juarez Rangel’s father.  I’ve previously found him on the 1940 census in the household of his parents, Miguel Juarez and Juana Conde.

It appears Miguel Juarez and Juana Conde had six children:

Pedro Juarez 1910-1935 married Micaela Yzaguirre

Teresa Juarez 1911-1927

Benito Juarez born about 1918, married Maria Rangel

Anna Juarez born 1920-1960 married Chavo Rosendez

Gertrudes Juarez 1924-1960 married Yzaguirre

Luz Juarez born about 1928

 

Teresa Juarez death certificate
Teresa Juarez’ 1927 death certificate shows she was born in Monterrey, Mexico. Her parents were Miguel Juarez and Juana Conde. The informant was Antonio Juarez.

 

Pedro Juarez death certificate
Pedro Juarez died of tuberculosis in a sanatorium in 1935. He was also born in Monterrey, Mexico according to his death certificate.

 

Anna and Gertrudes both passed away in 1960 and both of their death certificates state they were born in Texas.

 

Juana Conde death certificate
It appears Miguel Juarez was the informant on his wife Juana Conde’s 1947 death certificate. Which state in Mexico she was from is not listed. Her parents are named as Carmen Conde and Paula Romero.

 

There is a death certificate for a Miguel Juarez in San Benito, Cameron, Texas in 1963, but he is estimated to be about 88 years old at the time of his death.  If he were born around 1892 as it says on the 1940 census, he’d have been about 71 years old if he died in 1963.  The thing that makes me think it might be him is that the informant is Luz Juarez and that he is widowed.

Miguel Juarez death certificate

 

Advertisements
Genealogy, Immigration

Bernardo Sauceda or Sanseda or Salsado, Senior

I’ve been frustrated with being unable to get further on Bernardo Sauceda Sr. since seeing the record of his marriage to Francisca Garza in Zapata County, Texas, 1900. One of my maternal uncle’s Y-DNA37 matches (distance 4, 69.98% chance they share a common ancestor within 8 generations) is a Mr. SANCEDO, so I went to FamilySearch and searched “Bernardo Sancedo” because, well, why the hell not?

The death certificate for a boy named Dolores Sauseda came up, improperly transcribed as Sancedo (luck!). Parents were Bernardo Sauceda (properly spelled) and Francisca Garzo. 

Dolores Sauceda death cert
Dolores Sauceda death certificate, May 17, 1927, in Burleson County, Texas. Parents Bernardo Sauceda and Francisca Garza.

 

I entered these criteria and found a death certificate for Bernardo Sauceda under the name Bernardo Sanseda who was born in 1864 in Mexico and died in the same Texas county as the boy Dolores on July 5, 1935. His wife is listed as Francisca Sanseda.

 

Bernardo Sanseda death cert
Bernardo Sauceda Sr. death certificate July 5, 1935, in Burleson County, Texas. He was born in Mexico around 1864.

 

Since the son Dolores died in 1927 and Bernardo Sauceda Sr. died in 1935, both in Burleson County, Texas, I searched the 1930 census page by page for them.

The family was there under the name Salsado, and many of their first names were written incorrectly as well so it was no wonder we couldn’t find them on previous census records.

The names should be Bernardo Sauceda, Francsica (Garza), Felipe, Jose, Cruz, Rosa, Bernardo, Ysidro, and Paul (Paulino maybe).

 

Bernardo Sauceda family 1930 census info
Bernardo Sauceda Sr. and family on the 1930 census. Appears as “Benard Salsado”.

 

Now we know Bernardo Sauceda Sr. was born about 1864 in Mexico and died July 5, 1935, in Burleson County, Texas.  The census says both he and Francisca immigrated to the United States in 1900, though I have not seen immigration records for them thus far.  The Texas immigration records start in 1903 or something like that on FamilySearch.  They were married in Zapata County, Texas February 2, 1900, so I’m not sure if the arrival year is correct for either of them.

Genealogy, Immigration

Maria Rangel Juarez Partida

Maria Rangel, my father’s maternal grandmother, was born in Texas in 1924.  At some point, she married and had a family with Benito Juarez, then moved to Arizona between 1954-1956.  Maria Rangel divorced Benito Juarez in 1964 and married Federico Partida.  She died in Phoenix in 1982 but was living in Coolidge, Arizona at the time.

maria-rangel-juarez-divorce-oct1964
Maria Rangel divorces Benito Juarez in October 1964, Pinal County, Arizona.

I was able to order her death certificate and am so glad I did because ith showed her parents were Hipolito Rangel and Estefana de la Cruz.  I was also able to find a record of their entry into the United States in 1910.  The manifest lists just about all of the people entering as living in Monterrey, but (#20) Hipolito and (#21) Estefana listed their closest relative as being Hipolito’s sister Santos Rangel as living in Matehuala, San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

maria-rangel-death-certificate
Maria Rangel’s death certificate showing her parents, Hipolito Rangel and Estefana de la Cruz, 1982.
hipolito-rangel-estefana-de-la-cruz-border-crossing-1910
Maria Rangel’s parents, Hipolito Rangel (#20) and Estefana de la Cruz (#21) entering Hildalgo, Texas from Mexico in 1910. Santos Rangel is listed as Hipolito’s sister living in Matehuala, San Luis Potosí, Mexico.
Genealogy, Immigration

Bernardo Sauceda and Francisca Garza

Francisca Garza’s obituary from 1955 mentions her living children:

  •  Jose Garza Sauceda, Phoenix
  • Cruz Garza Sauceda, Phoenix
  • Benny Garza Sauceda, Phoenix (my maternal grandfather)
  • Paul Garza Sauceda, Phoenix
  • Felipe Garza Sauceda, Bryan, Brazos County, Texas
  • Segro? [I think this is supposed to be Ysidro Garza Sauceda], Houston, Texas
  • Manuela Bernal [née Manuela Garza Sauceda], Bryan, Brazos County, Texas

We know that Francisca was born in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico and eventually ended up in Texas, we’re just not sure when.  Tracing her children I was able to see the different places she lived in Texas.  Her son Felipe was born in San Ysidro, Zapata County, Mexico, Cruz Garza Sauceda was born in Paige, Bastrop County, Texas, and others including grandpa Benny were born in Tyler, Smith County, Texas.

 

Francisca Garza MX to TX map
Francisca Garza Sauceda’s trek from her birthplace in Tamaulipas, Mexico to Tyler, Texas.  She died in Phoenix, Arizona October 29, 1955.

 

Using the children’s birth years and locations I was able to find Bernardo Sauceda and Francisca Garza’s record of marriage in 1900 in Zapata County, Texas.

 

DSC01879
Bernardo Sauceda and Francisca Garza were married February 2, 1900 in Zapata County, Texas [microfilm, FamilySearch]

 

 

Immigration

Not entirely genealogy-related

DSC01071

Monument to the Soviet Army in Borisova Gradina, Sofia, Bulgaria

DSC01502
Monument of Liberty in Freedom Square, Ruse, Bulgaria

We recently went to Bulgaria to complete my husband’s immigration journey.  I am happy to report he is now a lawful permanent resident.  Going to Bulgaria to complete the process also gave him the opportunity to see family he hadn’t seen in  22 years.  Both of his grandmothers are still alive so we went to see them but unfortunately his paternal grandfather passed away last year.  The other grandfather passed away some time ago.  It was a bittersweet experience, mostly sweet.  We are happy to be home and feel a burden has been lifted from us.

 

Drama, Genealogy, Immigration, Rant

My life was a lie.

Just kidding, it wasn’t that dramatic.  My dad’s parents are Joe Conde and Amelia Juarez Rangel, although I didn’t really think about that until recently.  I wasn’t very close to these grandparents because, when I was born to teenage parents who did the best they could (a damn good job if you ask me), these grandparents didn’t feel old enough to be grandma and grandpa.  Amelia also tried to convince my dad I wasn’t his daughter.  I thought of her when my dad’s DNA results came in and did a little jig, even though we never doubted I am my father’s daughter.

My last name was Rangel, as was my dad’s, so I always assumed that was my grandfather’s last name.  Later I noticed some of my aunts and uncles were Conde.  As I got into genealogy I neglected my dad’s side because I feel very distant from them.  As time went on, I questioned my dad’s (and his dad’s) last name.  First off, it’s weird that my father has his mom’s maiden name but I had him join the Rangel Project at Family Tree DNA just in case.  I couldn’t find a Conde project.  In any case my father’s Y-DNA at 12 markers has no matches.  None!

My dad asked an older brother about all of this, and my uncle admitted to having asked my grandfather because he also had his suspicions.  My uncle said that my grandfather admitted his last name was false and told him his real last name which my uncle did not remember although he said “it sounded very indigenous.”

My paternal grandparents, Joe Conde and Amelia Juarez Rangel.  Some of their children were named Rangel, like my dad, and others Conde.
My paternal grandparents, Joe Conde and Amelia Juarez Rangel. Some of their children were named Rangel, like my dad, and others Conde.
Dad's mom, 5th down. Here is a record of Amelia Juarez Rangel's birth on October 17, 1941 to Maria Rangel and Benito Juarez.
Dad’s mom, 5th down. Here is a record of Amelia Juarez Rangel’s birth on October 17, 1941 to Maria Rangel and Benito Juarez.
1940 census
In 1940 we see Amelia Juarez Rangel’s parents, Maria Rangel and Benito Juarez living with Benito’s family. Benito’s father Miguel is the farmer and his sons are farm laborers, suggesting that Miguel Juarez owned the land. Interestingly, living with them are some Conde relatives. I think this is how my grandfather Joe Conde took his last name.
1930 census
In 1930 we see a very young Maria Rangel living with her family. This seeks to explain the different last names used by my father’s family: Conde, Juarez, and Rangel

AJR tombstone

Genealogy, Immigration

DH’s 23andMe Results

You all get to laugh at me, I was wrong about DH’s mitochondrial haplogroup.  Big surprise for a Bulgarian!

DH is also a V
DH is also a V

About V1 (23andMe): Introduction

Haplogroup V first appeared in Iberia toward the end of the Ice Age, about 16,000 years ago, when Europe’s human population was mostly restricted to a few temperate enclaves in the southern part of the continent. Aside from a branch that established itself in Sardinia during the period, haplogroup V was mostly confined to the Iberian peninsula until the Ice Age had ended.

The haplogroup began expanding once consistently warmer conditions arrived about 11,500 years ago. One migration carried it northward along the Atlantic to a low-lying coastal plain rich in game and marine food sources such as seals and sea birds. Known as Doggerland, that region lies under the North Sea today – because so much water was locked up in the polar ice sheets during and immediately after the Ice Age, sea level was lower in the past than it is today.

Doggerland slipped beneath the waves about 9,000 years ago, but haplogroup V remains at levels of about 5% in countries that border the Atlantic and especially the North Sea. It is most abundant today in Scotland and northern Germany.

A separate post-Ice Age migration carried haplogroup V through central Europe to western Russia and the Scandinavian Arctic.

Isolated Pockets

Haplogroup V tends to be most common today in isolated populations on Europe’s fringes, from the Finns and Saami in the north to the Sardinians and Basques in the south.

V reaches levels of 12% among the Basque. But its complete absence in ancient DNA samples from their homeland suggests that wherever the haplogroup originated in the Iberian peninsula, it wasn’t in the Basque country.

The Saami

The Saami, also known as the Lapps or Laplanders, are an indigenous ethnic group of northern Scandinavia and Russia’s Kola peninsula. Because their language belongs to the Finno-Ugric linguistic group, which appears to have originated in Russia, they were previously thought to have come from northern Asia or the Urals. But genetic analysis, including the detection of haplogroup V among the Saami, indicates that they probably migrated to their homeland from southern Europe after the Ice Age.

Haplogroup V appears at levels of about 40% in the Saami, and like the other two common haplogroups in the population, H1 and U5b1b1, it clearly originated in Europe. The haplogroup appears to have expanded from Iberia through central Europe after the Ice Age. It is found today at levels of about 10% percent in the Maris, an ethnic group living along the Volga in Russia, which suggests the Saami may have approached their Arctic homeland by traveling up that river and its tributaries toward the Baltic.

The high frequency of V in the Saami is due to the population shrinking to a small size several thousand years ago, then subsequently expanding. It is not known why this occurred. However, when this happens, some lineages randomly become more frequent while others disappear. Because of this V is more common in the Saami than other Europeans, including their Scandinavian neighbors.

A distinctive archaeological site – a cemetery on an island in a lake near St. Petersburg – suggests that ancestors of the Saami may have reached the Baltic region as much as 8,500 years ago. Saami groups in far northwestern Russia buried their dead on lake islands until the mid-19th century.

23andMe really refined DH's Y-DNA from E1b1b1 (E-M35.1) to E1b1b1a2 * (E-V13*)
23andMe really refined DH’s Y-DNA from E1b1b1 (E-M35.1) to E1b1b1a2 * (E-V13*)

Introduction

E arose in the eastern part of Africa about 30,000 to 40,000 years ago. Since then, migrants have carried it throughout that continent and into neighboring regions of Europe and the Near East.

Within Africa haplogroup E is extremely common and widespread, reaching levels of 75% or more among Arabs and Berbers in Morocco, Senegalese in western Africa and Bantu-speaking groups in South Africa and Kenya.

Haplogroup E1b1b1a

E1b1b1a originated in a population that moved from eastern Africa into northeastern Africa about 14,000 years ago, during the final days of the Ice Age. From northeastern Africa, E1b1b1a men expanded across northern Africa between the Sahara and the Mediterranean coastline, and out of Africa into Near Eastern populations, where their descendants still live today.

Haplogroup E1b1b1a is also common in southern Europe, including the Balkans, Iberia, and Italy. It is particularly common among Greeks, Bulgarians and Albanians, reaching levels of 15 to 30% in those populations. The majority of men bearing E1b1b1a descend from a quick expansion of people out of the Near East via Turkey about 4,500 years ago. This expansion of E1b1b1a is linked to the Bronze Age, a culture that arose from the smelting of tin and copper to create beautiful and complex bronze items, such as jewelry and weapons. These Bronze Age men carrying E1b1b1a and other haplogroups journeyed along river waterways in the Balkans and spread into east-central Europe. Today, men from Ukraine, Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia all carry E1b1b1a at levels of nearly 10%.

While the majority of E1b1b1a European males trace their recent ancestry to Turkey and the Near East, some men carrying E1b1b1a from Spain, Italy and Greece trace their ancestry directly from North African populations, probably within the last 4,000 years. The ancestors of these men must have sailed across the Mediterranean Sea and settled in communities along the European coast.

But not all branches of E1b1b1a are linked to the Mediterranean. Haplogroup E1b1b1a2 arose in the Balkan region of southeast Europe about 9,000 years ago, just as agriculture was beginning to make its way into the region. Men bearing this haplogroup had been hunter-gatherers, but likely took up farming soon after the arrival of agriculturalists from the Near East.

Today, E1b1b1a2 is still found in the Balkans, with about 20% of Greeks and 24% of Albanians carrying this haplogroup. E1b1b1a2 is present at lower levels in the surrounding Balkan Peninsula and in Anatolia (present-day Turkey).

Yet another branch of E1b1b1a, E1b1b1a3, originated in northeastern Africa about 10,000 years ago. Today it is found in about 20% of Egyptian men.

In the 23andMe blog…

Haplogroup E1b1b1a is also linked to the spread of agriculture in southeastern Europe. Learn more at the 23andMe blog.

African Migration

About 8,000 years ago men from the E1b1b1a1b branch of E1b1b1a migrated from Egypt southward into eastern Africa, perhaps in search of new pastures for their recently domesticated goats, sheep and cattle. Most men in Somalia and parts of Ethiopia and Kenya who carry the E1b1b1a mutation today are descendants of these migrants.”

Interestingly, I noticed DH has a null 425 Y-STR marker and had him join the Null 425 project at FTDNA in November of 2012.  I noticed the administrator listed DH as E-V13 and asked about it.  The administrator said:

 So your husband has typical STR (marker) values for this E-V13 subgroup, which is very common in the Balkans. It is considered to be the marker of ancient Illyrians and Thracians, and every 5th Bulgarian man belongs to this. It is the most common in Albania, but also frequent in Romania, Serbia and Greece.  You may test V13 as an individual SNP from FTDNA if you like, to be sure, but I say 99.9% you would test positive.  Also, all of the closest matches in the Null 425 project belong to this subgroup.
Super nice guy, and he was correct.
DH's Ancestry Composition
DH’s Ancestry Composition
Dr. McDonald's BGA
Dr. McDonald’s BGA

I asked Dr. McDonald about that spot of Americas green on chromosome 9 which he said was not actually Native American (which would not make any sense because DH and his family are from Bulgaria and have been for generations), he said it is actually Siberian.  This is what he said:

“Americas is very close to being East Asian and therefore likely some sort of Siberian something.  Looks like Bulgaria or Former Yugoslavia or some combo of those with Greek, or maybe Greek-Turkish or actual Cypriot-something. VERY clearly it is not Ashkenazi Jewish. Top bet is Bulgaria, but not great odds. What is it supposed to be?”